Answer 10

The presence of generalised increase in extensor tone, increase in facial muscle tone (‘risus sardonicus’) causing the lips to be drawn back and the forehead being wrinkled is characteristic of generalised tetanus. Treatment consists in trying to identify and treat potential source of infection, intraveinous administration of penicillin G or metronidazole, single intraveinous administration of tetanus antitoxin and symptomatic release of extensor tone using methocarbamol, diazepam, acepromazine and/or phenobarbitone. Gastrotomy tube should be placed if the dog is unable to prehend and swallow food.

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